After the fall of the empire this outstanding trophy became the target for Barbarian invaders who set about trying to destroy it. In the Middle Ages, the structure became a fortress before being dismantled to use different sculpted sections in other projects. By the 19th century, the monument was nothing but a ruin.
After the province of Nice became part of France in 1860, the trophy was listed as a ‘Monument Historique’. In 1905, the French Society for Archaeological Excavations began excavating the trophy. Finally, two leading architects for historical monuments rebuilt part of the structure with funding from the American benefactor Edouard Tuck.